Interesting. It's highly unusual for someone with visual difficulties to have above average processing speed scores on the WISC-IV. The processing speed test is very visual. Hmm.
Anyhoo, what you gave me was the summary. What I need are the actual scores. They should look something like this:
Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI): Subtest Scores Standard Scores Percentiles Information 8 90 25 Similarities 7 85 16
etc., etc. Each major section of the WISC-IV (VCI, PRI, WMI, and PSI) has subtests (like Information and Similarties are subests of the major section VCI, as shown above). It is the subtest scores that can really clue you into what is going on. The average of the major sections doesn't tell you much of anything. Also, an IQ test alone doesn't tell you much of anything, though parents seem to want to focus on the IQ tests alone. It is the achievement tests taken into account with the IQ tests that give the big picture. So, if you could list all the achievement scores on the WJ (Woodcock Johnson) and the WIAT (Weschler), as well. Grade equivalents on achievement tests can be very, very confusing, so don't pay attention to them. Just list any of the standard scores, subtest scores, or percentages you have.
Lillian I hope this is it....if not, I am going to scan every page I have here and email it to you to look at.
Terra Nova Scores, ( Saint Mary's School )( Where he attends now) Reading 32% ( questions were read to him) Language 53% Math 90 % Results, Justin was found to be in the low average range for Language and Reading and above average range for math.
Working Memory 18% Low Average Digit Span=7 Letter Number Seq=8
Processing Speed 88% High Average Coding =15 Symbol Search =11
BLENDER VISUAL GESTATLT TEST-SECOND EDITION ( Bender-Gestakt) The Bender Gestalt measures visual and motor intefration skills in children 4-85. The Bender Gestalt consists of a series of 16 template cards, each displaying a unique figure. The individual is asked to draw each figure as he or she observes it. Justin's performance was at age expectations.
Wechsler- Individual Achievement Test- Second Edition WIAT-II
Index Scores from WISC-IV are as follows VCI-19th%, PRI 18th%, Working Memory 18th%, Processing Speed 88th%
Achievement testing results from the WIAT-II indicate a signifcant phonological deficits and found a statistically significant discrepency between cognitive functioning and achievement in reading and writing.
The statistically discrepency found between cognitive functioning and academic achievement in the areas of reading and writing coupled with the noted phonological weakness indicate that Justin has a specific learning disabilty in the area of reading. As, such he qualifies for and needs special education services in the areas of reading and spelling.
The test of Language Development Picture Vocabulary 8% low average Oral Vocabulary 6% below average Grammatic Understanding 4% poor Sentence Immitation 9% average Grammatic Completion 8% low average Word Articulation 7% below average The Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation was also given. the following substitutions were found....d/j (med) d/th voiced and voiceless(I) t/th voiceless (Med) (F). b/v(I). br/dr,pr/tr/s/sh all positions and distortions of ch. The overall sum of the standard scores of the TOLD was found to be a 47 witha compostite quotion of 77. The result, would find Justin in the range of poor for his overall language development.
Lillian, I think that is everything, let me know if you think I have missed something. Thanks again Lisa
Though I belive they orginally told me they were using the Woodcock Johnston test, there is no scores here for that. What they have listed for testing is Student Interview Parent Interview Teacher Consult Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition ( WISC-IV) Wechsler Individual Achievement Test 2nd Edition (WIAT-II) Selective subtests) Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test ( Bender Gestalt) Review of Student Records That is all I have here...
I'm going to start with the IQ scores and transfer them into percentiles and averages, so you can see he IS NOT borderline or MR (the latter of which is below the 2nd percentile), according to these scores. In fact, he only has one borderline score, and having a borderline or lower score is not uncommon with kids, who have LD's. Actually, I have taken the adult version of this test, and I have a borderline score (the same as your son's--in Block Design), and I do NOT have an LD. My scores ranged from the 5th% to the >99th%. LOL! Anyhoo, here are the percentages and ranges:
Verbal Comprehension 19% Low Average Similarities=6 9th% Low Average Vocabulary =8 25th% Average Comprehension =9 37% Average
Perceptual Reading 18% Low Average Block Design =5 5th% Borderline Picture Concepts = 11 63% Average Matix Reasoning = 7 16% Low Average
Working Memory 18% Low Average Digit Span=7 16th% Low Average Letter Number Seq=8 25th% Average
Processing Speed 88% High Average Coding =15 95th% Superior Symbol Search =11 63rd% Average
So...Let's look at the IQ scores first and talk about basic strengths and weaknesses. I believe in starting with strengths, and your son's greatest strengths can be seen in coding, symbol search, and picture concepts.
In coding, a child is given geometric designs and must copy them correctly, as quickly as possible, within a certain amount of time. This test, therefore, tests a child's ability to pay enough attention to details that s/he notices intricacies within the designs, to actually see the designs, to be able to draw designs, and to complete a pen and paper task with speed.
In symbol search, a child is given geometric designs and must circle a matching design, as quickly as possible, within a certain amount of time. Unlike coding, the child does not have to actually draw the design, so this is more of a true, out-and-out, speed and paying attention to details test, than coding is.
Picture concepts is a nonverbal test, where a child is given pictures of an event and must place them in the correct order. For example, a child will be shown five pictures, let's say, with one being someone walking through a door, another being someone turning a doorknob, another being someone approaching the door, another being someone opening the door, and another being someone closing the door. The child has to be able to put these in the correct order that they would naturally occur. This test is thought to test a child's understanding of nonverbal social norms and natural occurances, planning, and and logical thinking.
Now, let's look at his weaknesses--similarities, block design, matrix reasoning, and digit span.
In similarities, a child is given two things and asked to tell how they are similar. For example, the evaluator will say, "Orange and grapefruit." The child will say, "They are both round, both fruits, and both grow on trees." This is thought to test abstract reasoning and verbal concepts, but the child also must possess certain skills and abilities beyond these to complete the task. Word recall is important, for example. The child must be able to pull words from memory quickly enough to give higher-level answers. A child with poor rapid naming and/or other form of working memory difficulties, for example, may really struggle on this test. A child who has difficulties interpreting auditory information quickly may really struggle with this test.
Block design is a test, where the child is given a group of blocks s/he must put together in the same way as a completed design in a picture. The block are different colors, and the child must match the colors in the picture, as well as the design. Children are given extra points for speed. The student who does really well on this test is your visual/spatial learner, the child who loves to build things and put objects together. My brother scores off the roof on this, and he is an artist and a homebuilder. I am horrible at this test, and I can't nail a nail into the wall. I swear to you, I can't! My son scores poorly on this, but I believe that's because it is timed, for my son's processing speed is in the tank! He actually is a spatial kid and fixes everything that's broken in the house, but he's also ADD-Inattentive, and he can't deal with timed tests. So, why someone does poorly on this will vary. Gross motor skills come into play, also, for the child has to be able to manipulate the blocks.
Matrix reasoning is difficult to explain. You would have to see it to get it, but it looks like a lot of the IQ tests you see on the internet. The person is shown a design, then is given a selection of four more designs and asked to pick which of the four is related to the one shown. Let me see if I can describe this...The person is shown a circle with a dot in the top lefthand corner, then a dot in the top righthand corner, and then a dot in the bottom lefthand corner. The person now has to choose between four designs and decide which one follows the pattern. One design shows the dot in the upper lefthand corner, one in the upper righthand corner, one in the bottom lefthand corner, and one in the bottom righthand corner. The person should choose the design with the dot in the bottom righthand corner. This is supposed to test "fluid reasoning" and logic, and it's often used as a nonverbal indicator, which means if the child does well on this subtest but poorly on the VCI sections of the WISC-IV, then the child may well benefit by being given a nonverbal IQ test. This proved true with my son, for he was given a nonverbal IQ test and scored twenty-three points higher on it than the WISC-IV. His highest score on the WISC-IV was in matrix reasoning, and his score in matrix reasoning was the same FSIQ he had on the nonverbal IQ test. So, these two scores were the same with my son, but I don't know if statistics prove this true with most children or not.
Digit span is a test of working memory, where the child is given a list of numbers and must repeat them in order. It tests attention, concentration, and auditory memory. Children with ADD/ADHD often have difficulties with this test, but children who take a great deal of time processing auditory information will have difficulties with this, as well.
O.K. I'm going to take a break and come back to do the rest. If you have any comments, feel free to make them.
I have never let my schooling interfere with my education.
The written expression section of this test is missing, but they comment that he has difficulties writing. Hmm. I don't understand why they didn't test his writing.
Word reading is basically reading sight words. Pseudoword decoding is reading nonsense words, or words that follow the phonemic pattern of the language but are not real words. For example, a pseudoword would be "splut." You would expect the child to know that the "u" is short, because that follows the pattern of the English language, and pronounce the word with a short "u", even though it's not a real word. When a child has difficulties with this, it can be indicative of a phonemic or morphological weakness in the language. The child is unfamiliar with the phonemes (the smallest units of sound) of the language or unfamiliar with how the phonemes change when grouped with other phonemes, which is more indicative of a morphological problem.
When a child's word reading and pseudoword decoding are below the 25th percentile, you expect the child to have difficulties with reading comprehension, as well, for if the child is unable to read the words on the page and unable to decode (break down into sounds) words to read them, then how can the child comprehend? This the child who should have great difficulties with the ABC's, who stumbles over words when he reads them, and who consistently must sound out words (and often does so unsuccessfully) when he's reading.
Pseudoword decoding, word identification, and comprehension all being below the 25th percentile is a HUGE red flag for dyslexia, whether the school actually likes to use the word "dyslexia" or not, and most schools do not! That does not mean he has dyslexia, but it's a strong possibility. Not only are your son's below the 25th percentile, his reading comprehension is in the deficiency range, which means it's below borderline, below 70. Anytime you have a child with an average IQ (or on the upper end of low average--you didn't give a full scale IQ score), like your son has, and an achievement test score in the deficiency range, you have a serious issue. Your son has a serious reading comprehension problem and MUST have SPED services to address this. I am in complete agreement with the school on this. I also am in complete agreement with the school about their wanting to address his phonemic awareness, as a way of addressing his reading comprehension. Yes, they absolutely must. Do you know what reading program they are going to use?
Now, the school also gave your son two oral language tests--The Test of Language Development and the Friscoe Articulation Test. I am concerned that your son struggled with the oral language tests, as well, though he did better than with the written. In the summary, the school says that he has a receptive language disorder and a language processing disorder. I definitely, absolutely, would want him evaluated by an audiologist for Central Auditory Processing Disorder, if he's old enough. How old is he? I seriously doubt that thirty minutes of speech once a week is going to do much to help. Can you afford private speech services? Do you have insurance that would cover these services? Private speech services are soooooo much better than school services. If you cannot afford private speech services and/or do not have insurance to cover these services, I would push for more speech/language remediation at school.
Now, what I don't get from the school's summary is the need for OT. There are no OT tests listed, but they comment that the OT evaluated him? I would really like to know how he was evaluated by the OT because the tests listed DO NOT show a visual perception weakness. This IS tested by OT's, however, so if the OT gave him a visual/motor integration test (like the Beery), maybe that's how the need for visual remediation from the OT was determined as being needed. It's highly unusual for a child to score what your son did on coding on the WISC-IV and have a visual integration weakness.
I have never let my schooling interfere with my education.
Lillian, I am unsure of what these two actually mean...can you just expain briefly...in mom's words, so I can understand it.
receptive language disorder and a language processing disorder.
I have great insurance, and will look into getting a private speech therapist here and also look in to having him tested as well...not sure where to begin on that I guess I will call the pedi...
The OT report is pretty long, I will try and sum it up.... Ocular Motor Skills.... Justin was not able to use isolated eye movements to smoothly track a moving object horizontaly midline. He lost focus and some jerkiness was noted. his eyes did not converge when he was asked to follow an object as it was brought to his nose.
Fine Motor...Justin used his right hand for writing and cutting. He was not observed to switch hands as he did when he was younger. He is able to reposition small items and release his pencil within his right hand. He uses a mature grasp and release pattern with manipulatives. Justin usedhis left hand to stablize writing paper without any cueing and with out his hand brace. He was able to reposition paper in his left hand while cutting. He used small controlled snips when cutting basic shapes along a thing line. Justin crossed body midline for paper and pencil tasks..ie mazes and writing a sentence. Justin can not tie his shoes, zip his coat or fasten buttons. His mother explained she does all this for him. He was able to tie an over hand knot after a brief instruction with minimal help. He worked hard fasting a small button at the bototm of his shirt and was quite proud of his accomplishment.
Visual Motor /Printing Pencil control is a strength for him, On the Developmental Test of Visual Perception Justin scored 63% for his age on eye hand coordination, and in the 91st% on visual motor speed ( making marks within small shapes) He scored average range at the 25th% on two design copy subtests. He had difficulty with some items that required him to understand how parts of designs fit together to make a whole design, he gave himself verbal cues to help on some items, like a diamond looked like a kite...
Justin attempted but was not able to write the alphabet with out a model. Even when the letters were dictated to him he did not distinguish between ipper and lower case letters. Justin was able to write a sentence when I dictated and spelled each word. Justin recieved a satisfactory on his report card in penmanship. However justin made his "M " upside down looking like a "w". Justin did not leave space between words as can be expected before a student learns to read.
Perceptual Justin was not able to lable basic shapes with confidence ie rectangle, oval,,,,he could identify 20 upper case and 19 lower case letters presented in random order. Justin scored average range for his age on two non motor sub tests of the DTVP. These include Ground FIgure 25th% and Form Consistancy 37th%/ The subtests required picking out specific details from a cluttered background and finding the same shape with in different sizes and orientations. He had significant difficulties with two other subtests. On Position in Space he had to match shapes going in the same direction distinguishing them from the same shape going in a different direction 2nd%. On Visual Closure he had to mentally complete paritaly drawn pictures understanding the relationship between the two parts and the whole picture 2nd%. Difficulty in these areas can contribute to problems in academic areas like distinguishing between similiar letters copying reading and spelling.
According to the DTVP areas of concern are Ocular Motor Skills and his significant difficulties with some non motot perceptual skills. Subtest scores on the DTVP range from 2nd% to 37th% with an overall perceptual score in the 5th % for his age. Difficulty in these areas can be contributing factors in Justins difficulty learning the alphabet and how to read.
Sorry that wasn't nearly in nut shell, actually it was word for word from the paper...
Oh, my gosh! He's only six?!? Is he in first grade?
This school is on the ball identifying him this early. That's also an excellent OT report. With a child is this young, though, it's difficult to separate certain difficulties from age appropriateness. The fact that he flipped his "m" and wrote lowercase only are not causes for great alarm with a six-year-old boy!
I have to fix dinner and spend the evening with my family, but I will return late tonight or tomorrow morning to comment more on the OT test.
BTW, he's too young to be evaluated by an audiologist, but since you can afford private remediation, that's O.K. The private speech/language path will know what to do.